검색어 입력폼

사하라 사막 이남 아프리카 지역의 만성적인 식량불안 원인(영어)

저작시기 2006.08 |등록일 2019.10.24 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 26페이지 | 가격 5,000원

소개글

Why Is Sub-Saharan Africa Chronically Food-Insecure?
Analysis of Root Causes in the Historical and Global Contexts

목차

Section I. Introduction
Section II. Common Explanations of the Sub-Saharan African Food Insecurity
1. Overpopulation
2. Unfavourable Weather
3. Civil Conflicts
4. Corruption and Poor Government Management

Section III. Examination of Root Causes in the Historical and Global Political Economic Contexts
1. Colonial Legacy
2. Post-Independence and Food Aid Politics
3. Neoliberal Economic Restructuring and Trade Liberalisation

Section IV. Conclusion

Bibliography

본문내용

Sub-Saharan African (SSA) is the only region in the world where poverty and hunger are significantly on the increase. While population grows fast, the amount of food produced in their lands are declining since the 1970s.1 While the rest of the world improved their agricultural productivity, SSA is the only region on earth where cereal production per capita was lower in 2001 than 1961.2 The economic crises from the 1980s onwards significantly have impeded their financial capacity to import necessary amount of foods to fill the gap. They are heavily dependent on international food assistance from one fifth in 1990 to one half of the total in 2003.3 The number of the under-nourished and the hungry are on the increase, reaching 33% of production as of 2005.4 About 40 million in any one year face acute hunger.5 More than 70% of the food insecure is found in rural areas.6 What make it worse are frequent natural disasters such as droughts and floods and human-inducing disasters such as civil conflicts.

참고 자료

Alexander, Lindsay, and Dan Smith. Evidence and Analysis: Tackling the Structural Causes of Conflict in Africa and Strengthening Preventive Responses. International Alert, 2004.
Atkinson, Jeff. Farmers, Food and the WTO. Oxfam, 1996 [cited August 13 2006]. Available from http://www.geocities.com/Baja/9317/wto.htm.
Avery, Dennis. Is Global Warming Causing Africa’s Famines? Centre for Global Food Issues, 2002 [cited August 15 2006]. Available from http://www.cgfi.org/materials/articles/2002/nov_1_02.htm
Barraclough, Solon Lovett, An End to Hunger?: The Social Origins of Food Strategies. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Zed Books, 1991.
Bennett, Jon. The Hunger Machine: The Politics of Food. Cambridge: Polity in association with Channel Four Television and Yorkshire Television, 1987.
Berger, Rachel. The Crisis in African Agriculture. Practical Action, 2005 [cited August 13 2006]. Available from http://www.sarpn.org.za/documents/d0001765/index.phh.
Braun, Joachim. A Policy Agenda for Famine Prevention in Africa. Food Policy Statement No. 13, 1991 [cited August 13 2006]. Available from http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/fps/fps13.htm.
Castro, Josue. The Geopolitics of Hunger. Rev. ed. New York, 1977.
Chossudovsky, Michel. The Causes of Global Hunger. Peace Magazine, 1995 [cited August 10 2006]. Available from http://www.peacemagazine.org/archive/v12n3p14.htm
Christensen, Cheryl. Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Pursuing Food Security, edited by W. Ladd Hollist and F. LaMond Tullis. Colorado: International Political Economy Yearbook, 1987
Djurfeldt, G Holme, H. Jirstre, M. What Can Sub-Saharan Africa Learn from Asian Experiences in Addressing Its Food Crisis? Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), 2006 [cited August 13 2006]. Available from http://www.sida.se/shared/jsp/download.jsp?f=SIDA24308en+Adressing+food+crisis+in+Africa_WEB.pd f&a=19308
Elbadawi, Ibrahim and Sambanis, Nicolas. Why Are There So Many Civil Wars in Africa? Understanding and Preventing Violent Conflict. Journal of African Economies (2000).
Fall, Yassine. Promoting Sustainable Human Development Rights for Women in Africa. Network Women in Development Europe, 1998 [cited August 10 2006. Available from http://www.twinside.org.sg/title/africa-cn.htm.
FAO, The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2003, 2003 [cited August 16 2006]. Available from http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/j0083e/j0083e00.htm.
FAO, Trade and Food Security. 2005 [cited July 30 2006]. Available from http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/a0050e/a0050e06.htm.
FAO, Trade Reforms and Food Security. 2003 [cited August 10 2006]. Available from http://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/y4671E/y4671E00.pdf.
Friedmann, Harriet. The Origins of Third World Food Dependence. In The Food Question: Profit Versus People, edited by Henry Bernstein. London: Earthscan Publications, 1990.
Fuentes, Marcelino. Farm Subsidies and Poor Consumers Biopolitical. 2005 [cited August 10 2006]. Available from http://biopolitical.blogspot.com/2005/03/farm-subsidies-and-poor-consumers.html.
George, Susan. How the Other Half Dies: The Real Reasons for World Hunger. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976
George, Susan. Ill Fares the Land: Essays on Food, Hunger, and Power. 1st ed. Washington, D.C.: Institute for Policy Studies, 1984.
Gommes, R. Rainfall Variability and Drought in Sub-Saharan Africa. FAO, 1996 [cited August 10 2006]. Available from htto://www.fao.org/sd/EIdirect/EIan0004.htm.
Harris, Laurence. Conceptions of the IMF’s Role in Africa. In World Recession and the Food Crisis in Africa, edited by Peter Lawrence. London: Review of African Political Economy, 1986.
Hayter, Teresa. The Creation of World Poverty. London: Pluto Press, 1981.
IAC. Markets and Policies to Make the Poor Income and Food Insecure? Interacademy Council, 2004 [cited August 18 2006]. Available from http://www.interacademycouncil.net/Object.File/Master/8/431/Africa%20%20Chapter%207%20Markets%and%20policies.pdf.
Johnson, D. Gale. World Agriculture in Disarray. 2nd ed. London: Macmillan for the Trade Policy Research Centre, 1990.
Kherallah, Mylene, and International Food Policy Research Institute. The Road Half Traveled: Agricultural Market Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy Report. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2000.
Khor, Martin. The Commodities Crisis and the Global Trade in Agriculture: Problems and Proposals. Third World Network, 2005.
Lappe Frances Moore, and Joseph Collins. Food First. London: Abacus, 1982.
Lawrence, Paul. World Recession and the Food Crisis in Africa. Edited by Peter Lawrence. London: Review of African Political Economy, 1986.
Lemma, Aklilu. Survival and Development in Africa. In Africa Beyond Famine, edited by Aklilu Lemma and Pentti Malaska. London: Tycooly, 1989.
Liliston, Ben. U.S. Food Aid Needs Major Reform. Africa Focus, 2005 [cited August 13 2006]. Available from http://www.africafocus.org/docs05/iatp0509.php.
Lofchie, Michael. The External Determinants of Africa’s Agrarian Crisis. In Pursuing Food Security, edited by W. Ladd Hollist and F. LaMond Tullis. Colorado: International Political Economy Yearbook, 1987.
Loxley, John. IMF and World Bank Conditionality and Sub-Saharan Africa. In World Recession and the Food Crisis in Africa, edited by Peter Lawrence. London: Review of African Political Economy, 1986.
Malaska, Pentti, and Paul Psychas. Famine as Human Folly: Urban Bias and Rural Neglect in SubSaharan Africa. In Africa Beyond Famine, edited by Aklilu Lemma and Pentti Malaska. London: Tycooly, 1989
Mitchell, Donald O., Merlinda D. Ingco, and Ronald C. Duncan. The World Food Outlook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Murphy, Sophia. Securing Enough to Eat. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), 2005
Page 23 / 26 [cited August 14 2006]. Available from http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2005/trade_securing_enough_to_eat.pdf
Murphy, Sophia and Mcfee, Kathy. US Food Aid: Time to Get It Right. Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, 2005 [cited August 10 2006]. Available from http://www.eldis.org/static/DOC19272.htm.
Mwaniki, Angela. Achieving Food Security in Africa: Challenges and Issues. The United Nations, 2006 [cited August 15 2006]. Available from http://www.un.org/africa/osaa/reports/Achieving%20Food%20Security%20in%20AfricaChallenges%20and%20Issues.pdf.
Nelson, Jack A. Hunger for Justice: The Politics of Food and Faith. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1980.
Northoff, Erwin. 23 Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa Are Facing Food Emergencies. FAO, 2003 [cited August 8 2006]. Available from http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/news/2003/20863-en.html.
O’Brien, Jay. Sowing the Seeds of Famine, the Political Economy of Food Deficits in Sudan. In World Recession and the Food Crisis in Africa, edited by Peter Lawrence. London: Review of African Political Economy, 1986.
Owusu, Kwesi and Ngambi, Francis. Structural Damage: The Causes and Consequences of Malawi’s Food Crisis. World Development Movement, 2002 [cited August 7 2006]. Available from http://www.mindfully.org/WTO/Malawi-Food-Crisis-CauseOct002.htm.
Oxfam. Causing Hunger: An Overview of the Food Crisis in Africa. 2006 [cited August 5 2006]. Available from http://www.oxfam.org/en/policy/briefingpapers/bp91_africa_food_crisis.
Patel, Raj. The Profits of Famine: Southern Africa’s Long Decade of Hunger. Food First, 2002 [cited August 10 2006]. Available from http://www.foodfirst.org/pubs/backgrdrs/2002/f02v8n4.html
Raikes Paul. Flowing with milk and money: Agriculture and Food in Africa and the EEC. In World Recession and the Food Crisis in Africa, edited by Peter Lawrence. London: Review of African Political Economy, 1986.
Rau, Bill. From Feast to Famine: Official Cures and Grassroots Remedies to Africa’s Food Crisis. London: Zed, 1991
Robbins, P.; Ferris, R.S.B. The Impact of Globalisation on the Agricultural Sectors of East and Central
Page 24 / 26 African Countries. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 2003 [cited August 3 2006]. Available from http://www.eldis.org/static/DOC14306.htm.
Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. London and Tanzanian Publishing House, 1973 [cited August 3 2006]. Available from http://www.marxists.org/subject/africa/rodney-water/how-europe/index.htm.
Sambira, Jocelyne. Africa: Economies Worst Placed to Cope with Knock-on Effects of Drought. IRIN, 2006 [cited August 11 2006]. Available from http://www.irinnews.org/S_report.asp?ReportID=52440&SelectRegion=Africa.
Sechler, Susan. Starved for Attention. The American Prospect, 2002 [cited August 3 2006] Available from http://www.prospect.org/print/V13/1/sechler-s.html.
Sender, John. Reassessing the Role of the World Bank in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Reinventing the World Bank, edited by Jonathan Pincus and Jeffrey A. Winters. Ithaca: Cornell University, 2002.
Shapouri, Shahla, and Stacey Rosen. Food Security Assessment: Why Countries Are at Risk? U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999 [cited August 15 2006]. Available from http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aib754/aib754.pdf.
Singh, Ajit. A Commentary on the IMF and World Bank Policy Programme. In World Recession and the Food Crisis in Africa, edited by Peter Lawrence. London: Review of African Political Economy, 1986.
Somerville, Keith. Why Famine Stalks Africa. BBC, November 12 2002.
Stevens, Christopher, Stephen Devereux, and Jane Kennan. International Trade, Livelihoods and Food Security in Developing Countries. Institute of Development Studies (IDS), 2003 [cited August 14 2006]. Available from htto://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/bookshop/wp/wp215.pdf.
Sutcliffe, Bob. Africa and the World Economic Crisis. In World Recession and the Food Crisis in Africa, edited by Peter Lawrence. London: Review of African Political Economy, 1896.
Toussaint, Eric. Your Money or Your Life!: The Tyranny of Global Finance. Pluto Press, 1999.
USAID. Breaking the Cycle of Despair: President Clinton’s Initiative on the Horn of Africa. US Agency for International Development, 1994 [cited August 9 2006]. Available from http://www.usaid.gov/regions/afr/ghai/cycle/causes/html.
Page 25 / 26
Von Braun, Joachim, Teklu Tesfaye, and Patrick Webb. Famine in Africa: Causes, Responses, and Prevention. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
Watkins, Kevin. Agricultural Trade and Food Security. Oxford: Oxfam, 1996.
WFP. Summary of WFP Assistance to Victims of Drought in the Greater Horn of Africa World Food Programme. 2000 [cited August 10 2006]. Available from http://iys.cidi.org/humanitarian/wfp/00a/0015.html.
Woods, Ngaire. The Globalizers: The IMF, The World Bank, and Their Borrowers. Cornell Studies in Money. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2006.
다운로드 맨위로