3. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and its use in screening
4. PSA and its use in prediction
5. PSA Density
6. Age-Adjusted PSA
8. Free Isoforms
9. Prostate specific membrane Antigen (PSMA)
10. PSA after radical prostatectomy
11. PSA to monitor response to radiation therapy
The widespread using of prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a screening marker has generated a huge impact on the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Although the PSA testing coupled with digital rectal examination (DRE) had allowed the physicians to detect the presence of prostate tumours, however, there is no specific cutoff values of the amount of PSA levels to determine prostate cancer that had generated a controversy on the physicians are treating insignificant cancers.
It is a member of the human kallikrein gene family, PSA is a 33-kilodalton serine protease secreted by the prostatic epithelium and the epithelial lining of the periurethral glands. Its role is significant in the liquefaction of the seminal coagulum to allow the release of spermatozoa . The prostatic lumen contains the highest concentration of PSA in the body and significant barriers, including the prostatic basement membrane, the intervening stroma, the capillary basement membrane and endothelial cell are introduced between the prostatic lumen and the capillary blood which prevent the leakage of PSA into the blood.
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