In this week, we’ve learned about modification. Modification can be called as modifier or adjunct as well, and AP basically plays role as a modification. Moreover, when PP and CP are used like adjective in sentences, they also can be modifiers.
- Restrictive Modification vs. Non-restrictive Modification
There are two kinds of modifications, restrictive modification and non-restrictive modification. To be specific, a sentence ‘John hit the man who I met yesterday’ contains restrictive modification because the modifier CP ‘who I met yesterday’ makes limitation to the meaning of ‘the man’. In other words, ‘the man’ indicates only the man ‘who I met yesterday’ among any other ‘the man’. It means ‘the man’ in the sentence is narrowed down from ‘the man1’, ‘the man2’, ‘the man3’ ... to ‘the man who I met yesterday’. On the other hands, a sentence ‘John hit the man, who I met yesterday’ includes non-restrictive modification. That’s because ‘the man’ is not narrowed down, and the speaker just wants to talk about THE MAN by giving ‘further information’.