2. Structural Causes
3. Contributing Causes
4. Dynamics of the civil war
On 10 September 2012, the federal parliament of Somalia elected Hassan Sheike Mohamud as the president of the Federal Government of Somalia. He is the first president of the permanent central government in the country since the collapse of the Siad Barre regime in 1991. However the government is still unable to exercise its valid control over the entire territory. The federal government, backed by African Union (AU) forces, only controls Mogadishu and some border areas. Vast areas of the territory are under control of Al-Shabaab Al-Mujahidiin (Al-Shabaab). The human cost of the prolonged civil war has been massive. The casualty figures for Somalia’s civil war range from between 300,000 and 400,000 deaths (Mengisteab 2014). Furthermore, it is believed that two million Somali people were internally displaced and have become refugees as a result of the civil war (UNHCR 2015).
This essay will identify and assess the primary causes of the civil war in Somalia and dynamics of the civil war, and clarify the role of these factors in the continuation of the war.
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