1. What is grammar?
2. Background to the teaching of grammar
3. Principles for teaching grammar.
4. Classroom techniques and tasks
5. Grammar in the classroom
- Grammar is generally thought to be a set of rules specifying the correct ordering of words at the sentence level.
- Sentences are acceptable if they follow the rules set out by the grammar of the language.
- The sentence “The man bit the dog,” is grammatical, but would be considered unacceptable by many people for other reasons.
- Grammarians distinguish between prescriptive grammars and descriptive grammars.
- A prescriptive grammar lays down the law, saying what is right and what is wrong.
- A descriptive grammar sets out to describe the way that people actually use language.
Declarative knowledge is knowing language rules.
Procedural knowledge is being able to use knowledge for communication.
→ While declarative knowledge can facilitate the development of procedural knowledge, it is not necessary and sufficient condition for the development of such knowledge.
Students need to develop mastery of target language items, not by memorizing rules, but by using the target items in communicative contexts.
This learning through use or learning or learning by doing principle is one that has come to us through the approach to education known as experientialism.