1. Fluorescence microscope
2. Confocal pinhole
3. Confocal microscope
Fluorescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation light by a substance that has absorbed radiation of a different wavelength. The molecules absorb high-energy light. This increases the energy of the molecules : excited molecule. Some of the energy from the photon is lost internally. The molecule then emits a photon with less energy.
1. Limited primarily to the limited number of excitation wavelengths available with common lasers, which occur over very narrow bands
2. Expensive to produce in the ultraviolet region
3. The intense illumination from the laser can rapidly photo-bleach (fade) some fluorescent samples.
"Confocal Microscopy", D Semwogerere & ER Weeks, published in the Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Taylor & Francis (2005).
"Handbook of biological confocal microscopy," edited by James B. Pawley, 2nd ed., Plenum Press, 1995.