Multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology
Most commonly affects young adults ;
Relatively rare in children
Clinical presentation :
Ocular and cutaneous lesions
Early-onset sarcoidosis (< 4 years)
Triad: skin, joint, and eye involvement
In older children
lungs, lymph nodes, and eyes predominates.
The overall prognosis of childhood sarcoidosis :
Good compared with the prognosis for adults
While most children apparently improve, a significant number of patients have sequelae or experience major complications; however, the mortality rate is low (3%).
Symptomatic patients with multisystemic involvement
often experience chronic disease,
residua in about 20%, mainly involving the eyes and lungs.
Early-onset sarcoidosis with involvement of the eyes, joints, and skin suggests a guarded prognosis with the likelihood of a chronic progressive course and even life-threatening complications;
80-100% of these children develop residua of uveitis, polyarthritis, and other organ involvement.
Progressive ocular disease may produce severe disability, with secondary glaucoma resulting in blindness. Periodic ophthalmologic evaluations are essential in all cases of childhood sarcoidosis to identify ocular disease and prevent further morbidity