검색어 입력폼

디지털 테크놀로지 도입 이후 변화된 프랭크 게리와 피터 아이젠만의 건축디자인 프로세스에 관한 비교 연구

저작시기 2003.01 |등록일 2011.02.12 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 187페이지 | 가격 2,000원

소개글

본 연구는 디지털 테크놀로지에 주목하고 건축디자인에 디지털 테크놀로지가 도입된 이후 변화된 디자인 프로세스를 고찰하고 디지털시대 이전 작품과의 비교분석을 통해 디지털 테크놀로지의 가치를 모색하고자 했다.
프랭크 게리와 피터 아이젠만은 디지털 도구를 활용하여 새로운 형태를 형상화하고 있으며, 과거 2차원적인 평면을 통해 간접적으로 3차원 건축을 구상하는 프로세스에서 탈피하여 직관적인 3차원 도구와 사고를 통해 바로 3차원 건축을 형상화하며, 디지털 미디어를 통해 평면, 입면, 단면 등의 2차원 드로잉들을 자동으로 추출한다는 공통점을 발견하였다.
프랭크 게리가 주로 사용하는 디지털 미디어는 CATIA로써 항공․자동차 산업 등의 정밀 작업에 사용되는 Skin-In 작업 프로세스에 사용되는 툴이다. 그는 건축을 하나의 오브제로 간주하여 직관적인 수작업을 통해 모델을 만들며 이러한 구체적 건축형태로 형상화하기 위한 도구로써 디지털 미디어를 활용한다. 따라서 게리에게 있어 디지털 테크놀로지의 가치는 사고영역의 확장을 위한 재현적 도구로서의 성격이 강하다.
반면, 피터 아이젠만이 주로 사용하는 디지털 미디어는 강력한 시뮬레이션 기능을 수반하고 있는 Form-Z라는 프로그램이며 이를 통해 디자인 초기부터 직․간접 변형과 비주얼한 시뮬레이션 과정을 통해 새로운 건축 형태를 만들어 내고 있다. 또한 디지털 모델링에 의해 재현되는 각 부분의 좌표값을 통해 물리적 형상화를 이루고 있기도 하다. 이를 바탕으로 아이젠만은 새로운 형태적 가치를 모색하고자 했던 취지를 살릴 수가 있게 되었다.

목차

국문초록 ········································································································································ i
감사의글 ······································································································································ iii
목 차 ······································································································································· v

제 1 장 서론
1.1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 ········································································································ 3
1.1.1. 연구의 배경 ············································································································· 3
1.1.2. 연구의 목적 ············································································································· 4
1.1.3. 선행연구경향분석 ···································································································· 6
1.2. 연구의 범위 및 방법 ········································································································ 7

제 2 장 디지털 미디어 및 디지털 건축에 관한 고찰
2.1. 컴퓨터의 계보학 ·············································································································· 13
2.1.1. 컴퓨터의 어원 ········································································································ 13
2.1.2. 컴퓨터의 위상 ········································································································ 13
2.1.3. 컴퓨터의 발전 ········································································································ 16
2.1.4. 발전된 컴퓨터의 각 단계의 예 ············································································· 20
2.1.4.1. 디지털화의 예 ····························································································· 20
2.1.4.2. 디지털처리의 예 ·························································································· 21
2.1.4.3. 디지털표현의 예 ·························································································· 22
2.2. 건축 디자인에서의 디지털 미디어의 활용 ····································································· 23
2.2.1. 건축 디자인에서의 디지털 미디어의 도입 배경 ·················································· 23
2.2.2. 건축 디자인에서의 디지털 미디어의 활용 ··························································· 24
2.2.2.1. 디자인 도구로써의 컴퓨터 그래픽의 활용 ··················································· 26
2.2.2.2. 디지털 모델링(modeling)의 활용 ··································································· 27
2.2.3. 건축에서의 디지털 미디어의 가능성 ···································································· 29
2.2.3.1. Data Bases ·································································································· 29
2.2.3.2. Drawing and Modeling ·················································································· 30
2.2.3.3. Simulation ···································································································· 30
2.2.3.4. Communication ····························································································· 31
2.2.3.5. 가상현실 (VR) ······························································································ 31
2.2.3.6. 컴퓨터 선반 (CNC MILL) ············································································· 32
2.3. 디지털 건축의 일반적 특성 ···························································································· 34
2.3.1. 컴퓨터에-의함: Digital Processing ·········································································· 34
2.3.2. 컴퓨터에-의한 디지털 건축: Architectural Design by Digital Processing ··············· 35
2.3.3. 사례분석을 통해 본 디지털 테크놀로지에 의한 디지털 건축의 사용 방법 ········ 35
2.4. 사례분석을 통한 디지털 건축의 범주 분류 ··································································· 38
2.4.1. Digitizer된 Data와 Factor를 통한 형태생성과 형태변형 ······································ 38
2.4.2. 건축가의 직관에 의한 형태생성과 형태변형 ························································ 39
2.4.3. Digitizer된 다양한 Code적용에 의한 형태생성과 형태변형 ································· 43

제 3 장 프랭크 게리의 디자인 프로세스 분석
3.1. 작가 선정 ························································································································ 47
3.2. 디지털 디자인 프로세스를 활용한 프랭크 게리의 작품 분석 ······································· 49
3.2.1. 프랭크 게리의 건축 디자인적 특징 ······································································ 49
3.2.2. 디지털 테크놀로지가 적용되기 이전의 작품 분석 ············································· 51
3.2.2.1. 1960년대 작품의 분석 ·················································································· 52
3.2.2.2. 1970년대 작품의 분석 ·················································································· 52
3.2.2.3. 1980년대 작품의 분석 ·················································································· 54
3.2.3. 디지털 테크놀로지 적용 ························································································ 56
3.2.3.1. 디지털 테크놀로지의 도입 - 바르셀로나 Fish ············································· 56
3.2.3.2. 디지털 테크놀로지의 실험 - 하노버 버스 정류장 ······································· 62
3.2.3.3. 디지털 테크놀로지의 적용 - 빌바오 구겐하임 미술관 ································ 65
3.2.3.4. 디지털 테크놀로지의 확립 - 디즈니 콘서트 홀 ·········································· 70
3.2.4. 디지털 테크놀로지 사용 이후의 디자인 프로세스 ··············································· 73
3.2.4.1. 프로그램 구축 ····························································································· 74
3.2.4.2. 드로잉과 제스처 ·························································································· 76
3.2.4.3. 도발적 드로잉 ····························································································· 80
3.2.4.4. 디자인 프로세스 모델: 드로잉을 빌딩으로 ·················································· 81
3.2.4.5. 최종 디자인 모델 ························································································ 85
3.2.4.6. 디지털정보화 (Digitizing) ··············································································· 90
3.2.4.7. 형태 마무리 ································································································· 90
3.2.4.8. 합리화 / 정당화 ··························································································· 92
3.2.4.9. 시뮬레이션 ·································································································· 97
3.2.4.10. 컴퓨터 원용 제조(CAM, Computer Aided Manufacturing) ··························· 100
3.2.4.11. 씨-큐브 (C-cubed) ··················································································· 103
3.2.5. Digital Design Process ························································································ 104
3.2.6. 디지털 도구와 재료 및 형태와의 상관관계 ························································ 106

제 4 장 피터 아이젠만의 디자인 프로세스 분석
4.1. 디지털 디자인 프로세스를 활용한 피터 아이젠만의 작품분석 ··································· 111
4.1.1. 피터 아이젠만의 건축 디자인적 특징 ································································· 111
4.1.2. 디지털 테크놀로지가 적용되기 이전의 작품분석 ··············································· 114
4.1.3. 디지털 디자인 프로세스에 의한 다이어그램 전개특성 ······································ 118
4.1.3.1. 다이어그램의 1차적 생성 ··········································································· 119
4.1.3.2. 다이어그램의 2차적 생성 ··········································································· 120
4.1.3.3. 다이어그램의 직접적 변형 ········································································· 121
4.1.3.4. 다이어그램의 간접적 변형 ········································································· 122
4.1.4. 디지털 디자인 프로세스를 활용한 피터 아이젠만의 설계방법 ·························· 124
4.1.4.1. 다이어그램 초기형태구성 ··········································································· 124
(1) 기본 다이어그램 ···················································································· 124
(2) 초기형태구성 ························································································· 126
4.1.4.2. 디지털 디자인 프로세스에 의한 다이어그램 전개 ····································· 128
(1) 디지털 디자인 프로세스 적용방법 ························································· 128
(2) 디지털 디자인 프로세스의 적용 특색 ···················································· 130
4.1.4.3. 다이어그램의 건축 형태화 ········································································· 131
4.1.4.3. 피터 아이젠만의 디지털 디자인 프로세스의 의의 ····································· 132
4.1.5. 사례분석 ··············································································································· 135
4.1.5.1. 아르노프 센터(Aronoff Center) ···································································· 136
(1) 사례개요 ································································································ 136
(2) 디지털 디자인 프로세스에 의한 설계과정 ············································· 138
4.1.5.2. 에모리 예술센터 (Emory University Center for Arts) ··································· 144
(1) 사례개요 ································································································ 144
(2) 디지털 디자인 프로세스에 의한 설계과정 ············································· 146
4.1.5.3. 막스 라인하르트 하우스(Max Reinhardt Hous) ············································ 151
(1) 사례개요 ································································································ 151
(2) 디지털 디자인 프로세스에 의한 설계과정 ············································· 152
4.1.5.4. 비엔나 메모리얼 (Vienna Memorial) ···························································· 156
(1) 사례 개요 ······························································································ 156
(2) 디지털 디자인 프로세스에 의한 설계과정 ············································· 156
4.1.6. 사례분석 소결 ······································································································· 161
4.1.7. 피터 아젠만의 디지털 디자인 프로세스의 적용 의의 ············································ 163
4.2. 프랭크 게리와 피터 아이젠만의 디자인 프로세스 비교 분석 ····································· 164

제 5 장 결론
5. 결론 ······································································································································ 171

■ 참고문헌 ······························································································································ 173

■ 표목차 ·································································································································· 176

■ 그림목차 ······························································································································ 176

■ ABSTRACT ·························································································································· 180

본문내용

2.3.2. 컴퓨터에-의한 디지털 건축: Architectural Design by Digital Processing
앞서 살펴본 이론적 고찰을 통해 컴퓨터의 사용은 Digitizer, Digital Processing,
Digital Presentation의 세 단계를 거친다. 이를 통해 컴퓨터에-의한 디지털 건
축이란 건축의 작업에 있어 무엇을 디지타이저하고 이것을 어떻게 컴퓨터를 통
해 처리-디자인하며 그리고 처리된 결과-디자인을 어떻게 표현하는지에 형식적
인 3단계를 거치게 되며 이 3단계의 내용에 따라 비교할 수 있는 디지털 건축
의 고유의 특성을 찾아낼 수 있을 것이다.

2.3.3. 사례분석을 통해 본 디지털 테크놀로지에 의한 디지털 건축의 사용 방법
디지털테크놀로지에 의한 디지털 건축의 예는 다음 <표 2-22>과 같이 세 가
지의 특징적인 경향을 가지며, 각 건축가마다 <표 2-23>와 같은 디지털 프로
세스가 적용된다.아래 <표 2-2>의 조사된 내용을 보면 A-디지타이저의 경우 다양한 code들
이 건축가들에게 선택되며 디지타이저 되고 B-디지털처리의 경우는 형태생성
과 형태변형의 두 가지의 “처리”가 이루어진다. C-디지털표현의 경우는 실제
적인 물리적 구축고 가상의 구축 두 가지의 경우로 수렴함을 알 수 있다.
결국 A-디지타이저의 경우 건축가에 의해 선택되는 code인 실질적 factor들
은 매우 다양하고 건축가의 주관에 따르기 때문에 대상화를 위한 어떤 대세적
인 경향성을 부여하는 것은 위험하며, C-디지털표현은 건축가의 의도와 A와
B에 종속된 단순한 결과를 가지므로 대상화에 매우 부적절하다. 컴퓨터에-의한
디지털 건축을 대상화 할 수 있는 특징은 B-디지털처리에서 얻어진다.
<표 2-2>의 조사에 의하면 B-디지털처리는 디지타이저된 data와 code에 의
해 형태생성과 형태변형을 일으키며 동시에 디지타이저된 data와 code와는 관
계없이 건축가의 아이디어가 직접 반영되어 형태생성과 형태변형을 일으키는
크게는 두 가지, 작게는 4가지의 처리과정의 특징을 갖는다. 이들 4가지의 방법
들은 서로 얽혀있는데 형태변형을 통해 형태생성이 이루어지며 형태변형을 위
해 형태생성을 하기도 한다.

참고 자료

단행본-국외
․Andreas Bettella, 『RE:Working Eisenman』, AD․ES, 1993
․Andreas Papadakis 외2, 『Deconstruction』, New York, Rizzoli, 1989
․Bruce Lindsey, 『Digital Gehry』, Berlin, Birkhauser, 2001
․Frank O. Gehry, 『Frank Gehry Architect』, New York, Guggenheim Museum, 2001
․Frederic Migayrou and Marie-Ange Brayer, 『Archi Lab』, London, Thame & Hudson, 2001
․Gerhard Schmitt, 『Information Architecture』, Berlin, Birkhauser, 1998
․Judy Geib, Sabu Kohso, 『Peter Eisenman & Frank Gehry』, New York, Rizzoli, 1991
․Kirsten Degel, 『The Architect`s Studio』, Denmark, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, 1998
․Luca Galofaro, 『Digital Eisenman』, Berlin, Birkhauser, 1999
․Maia Engeli, 『Bits and Space』, Berlin, Birkhauser, 2001
․Maia Engeli, 『Digital Stories, Berlin』, Birkhauser, 2000

단행본-국내 1
․Arata Isozaki 著, 김병윤 譯, 『21세기 건축의 예언가들』, 현대건축사, 1999
․김용운 김용국 공저, 『재미있는 수학여행 공간의 세계』, 김영사, 1991
․박부미 외1, 『하이퍼건축』, 서울, 이집, 2001
․이재홍, 『NEW WORLD ARCHITECT  FRANK O. GEHRY』, C3A(건축과 환경), 2001
․이호정 편역, 『a+u 피터아이젠만』, 집문사, 1996

정기간행물
․강대호, 아날로그적 사고방식과 디지털적 사고방식, 건축誌, 2001
․강미선, 디지털 시대, 건축, 그리고 여성, 건축誌, 2001
․고성용, 사이버트랜드 속의 건축, 건축誌, 1997
․김 성, 디지털 모델, 재현, 생성, 그리고 공유, 건축誌, 2001
․김우영, 디지털 공간의 의의와 전망, 건축誌, 2001
․김주미, 비선형 패러다임과 디지털 건축, 건축誌, 2001
․김성아, 건축설계정보의 공유와 커뮤니케이션, 건축誌, 1997

정기간행물
․김성아, 디지털 모델: 재현, 생성, 그리고 공유, 건축誌, 2001
․문 훈. 디자털화 되가는 건축이냐, 디지털 오브젝트를 담은 그릇으로써 건축이냐?, 건축誌, 2001
․이명식, 다자털 건축에서 추구하는 디자인 자연주의. 건축誌. 2001
․이철재, 디지털건축과 Liquidizing Form. 건축誌. 2001
․최진원, 온라인 건축과 오프라인 건축, 건축誌, 2001
․CAD CAM, 최근 CAD 제품개발 동향, 서울, 지누미디어(주), 2002

학술논문
․고정수, 유기적 도시건축의 해석에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 21권 2호, 2001
․김광우, 건축설계에 있어서 컴퓨터의 응용에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 2권 2호, 1986
․김경희, 폴드건축의 특성에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 20권 2호, 2000
․김수경, 프랙탈 이론을 적용한 건축 형태 생성원리에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 20권 2호, 2000
․감상희, 네덜란드 현대 건축가들이 내부조직체계로 사용하는 연속된 면의 조직방법에 관한 연구, 대한건축학
회논문집, 21권 2호, 2001
․김성아, CAAD교육에 있어서 모델링의 역할, 대한건축학회논문집, 13권 7호, 1997
․김지훈, 사이버 건축의 형성배경과 형태 표현상 특성에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 20권 2호, 2000
․김한규, 건축형태 생성방법으로서의 ‘Fold`에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 18권 2호, 1998
․류무열, 디지털 건축의 시간기반 프로젝트에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 21권 2호, 2001
․민상층, 건축공간에 있어서 기호학의 상용에 대한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 2권 2호, 1986
․박사옥, 정보화시대의 건축과 가상건축의 가능성에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 13권 3호, 1997
․박상보, 비정형 건축형태에 나타난 변형적 사고에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 20권 2호, 2000
․안형정, 네덜란드 구조주의의 건축특성에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 18권 1호, 1998
․여영호, 프랭크 게리 작품의 형태론적 특성에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 15권 9호, 1999
․유신영, 대화형 컴퓨터 그래픽 시뮬레이션을 이용한 건축 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 12권 11호, 1996
․윤기병, 개별형 건축공간계획 시스템 개발 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 14권 10호, 1998
․윤용집, 프랭크 게리 건축물의 구조 시스템에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회 학술발표논문집, 22권 1호, 2002
․이경훈, 사이버공간의 특성과 가상공간의 의미에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 17권 5호, 2001
․이경훈, 텍스트 이론에 의한 건축 외관 형성에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 15권 1호, 1999
․이기영, 다니엘 리베스킨트 건축에 나타나는 프랙탈 기하학의 형태구성의 특징에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논
문집, 21권 2호, 2001
․이대송, 건축에서의 컴퓨터 그래픽의 기초개념, 대한건축학회 학술발표논문집, 21권 2호, 2001
․이준혁, 렘 콜하스 작품에서 나타난 개방적 프로그램의 특성 고찰, 대한건축학회논문집, 17권 9호, 2001
․이혁준, 웹 기반형 건축설계환경구축에 관한 연구, 대한건축학괴 학술발표논문집, 21권 1호, 2001
․임지훈, 디지털 건축의 디자인 경향에 대한 분석 연구, 대한건축학회 학술발표대회, 22권 2호, 2002
․양동양, 건축설계를 위한 시각적 지각 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 6권 3호, 1990
․전성배, 현대건축과 SF영화의 이미지 유형에 의한 상관관계 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 20권 2호, 2000

학술논문
․정은주, 영화 속의 도시․건축에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 21권 2호, 2001
․최창길, 건축시뮬레이션에 있어 컴퓨터그래픽의 응용에 관한 연구, 대한건축학회논문집, 13권 11호, 1997

학위논문
․김봉수, 피터 아이젠만의 건축설계에 활용되는 디지털 디자인 프로세스에 의한 형태생성과 변형에 관한 연
구, 한양대, 석론, 2000
․이대송, 현대예술과의 동형성 추적을 통한 디지털 건축의 개념 설정에 관한 연구, 한양대, 석론, 2002
․송은아, 정보화 시대의 공간 이미지화에 관한 연구, 건국대, 석론, 2001
․심형섭, 피터 아이젠만의 언어론적 건축에 관한 연구, 서울대, 석론, 1991
․이기정, 디지털 문화로 인한 물리적 환경의 변화가능성 예측 연구, 연세대, 석론, 2000
․엄정현, 내․외부 공간 관계를 통해 본 렘 쿨하스 건축의 ‘체험공간’에 관한 연구, 석론, 서울대, 1999
․한선정, 해체주의 이후 아방가르드 건축의 특성과 성격규명에 관한 연구, 서울대, 석론, 1999
․한혜승, 피터 아이젠만의 건축형태 생성원리에 관한 연구, 서울대, 석론, 1997
․허성원, 디지털시대 건축조형의 표현 특성에 관한 연구, 경남대, 석론, 2001
․천의영, 1980년대 중기 이후 현대 건축의 관계성에 관한 연구, 서울대, 석론, 1998

웹 사이트
․http://artsauare.co.kr/square/news1999/119.htm
․http://travel.chosun.com/abroad/travel/Abroadtravel20000122-02.asp
․http://my.dreamwiz.com/architoy/warchi/gugenhaim.htm
․http://my.dreamwiz.com/architoy/warchi/bilbao.html
․http://monthly.chosun.com/html/200101/200101220001_15.html
․http://ns.kcpi.or.kr/database/bokji/73/73_3.html
․http://www.cmhub.com/Webzine/2100_web_story_museum_bil.asp
․http://www.guggenheim-bilbao.es/ingles/home.htm
다운로드 맨위로