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왕안석의 개혁정책과 배경 및 사상

저작시기 2010.02 |등록일 2010.02.10 한글파일한글 (hwp) | 16페이지 | 가격 800원

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왕안석의 개혁정책과 배경 및 사상에 대한 글입니다.
A+ 받은 레폿입니다^^

목차

Ⅰ.머리말 ··········································································································· 2

Ⅱ. 본문 ············································································································ 2

1. 사회적 배경 ································································································ 2
1) 북송 중기의 사회···················································································· 2
2) 당쟁의 발생 ··························································································· 3
3) 개혁의 배경과 왕안석의 등장 ································································ 5

2. 왕안석의 개혁사상 ······················································································ 6
1) 제도적 통제 ··························································································· 7
2) 공리주의 ································································································ 8
3) 경제관 ··································································································· 8

3. 개혁정책과 그 영향 ···················································································· 9
1) 개혁정책 ······························································································· 9
2) 영향 ···································································································· 12

4. 개혁의 실패 원인과 한계 ·········································································· 14
1) 관료기구에 대한 통제 실패 ································································· 14
2) 중앙집권화와 순종주의 ········································································ 15

Ⅲ. 맺음말 ······································································································ 16

<참고문헌> ······································································································ 16

본문내용

Ⅰ.머리말
시대가 변화해나가는 과도기는 역사를 배우는 사람들에게 항상 매력적인 주제이지만 악마와 천사로 평가가 엇갈리는 역사인물도 그에 뒤지지 않는 흥미로운 주제이다. 왕안석은 근본적으로 유가(儒家)의 테두리를 넘지 않은 급진적인 유가사상가(儒家思想家)였으며, 그의 시책들도 특정계층의 이익을 목표로 하지는 않았으며 무엇보다도 국가의 이익을 우선했다. 보통 유가에서 이(利)를 멀리한데 반해 그는 공리주의 사상을 가졌으며 도덕적 개선보다는 통치 체제의 개혁을 중시하였다.
왕안석의 개혁 정책은 급진적이고 투철하였으며 당시 사회 경제적인 위기를 타개하기 위한 대안 책으로서 실행성에 있어서도 가히 파격적이라 할 수 있다. 그런 그의 정치개혁에 대한 평가는 논자에 따라 비판적이기도 하고 호의적이기도 한데 이 두 입장은 극단적으로 서로 다른 면을 갖고 있다.
종래 왕안석의 신법에 대한 평가는 남송 이후 명․청대에 이르기까지 부정적인 면이 강하였다. 즉 왕안석을 전통을 파괴한 북송 멸망의 장본인이라고 낙인찍고 사상적으로 법가(法家)적 패도주의자로, 사회 경제적으로는 지주전호제의 파괴자로 단정 지었다. 한편 왕안석의 개혁을 두고 당·송간 변혁의 총결산이라든가 또는 이후 북송의 역사 전개를 규정지은 일대 사건이었다고 평가하는 것 등은 신법으로 말미암은 역사적 전개를 보여주는 사례라 할 수 있다. 따라서 본 보고서에서는 왕안석의 신법에 대한 평가가 분분하지만 이에 대한 북송중기의 사회와 개혁의 원인과 왕안석의 개혁정책과 배경 및 사상 등을 살펴보고자 한다.

Ⅱ. 본문
1. 사회적 배경
1) 북송중기의 사회
당말(唐末)․오대(五代)의 혼란을 극복하고 통일을 달성한 송대에 들어와 중국의 사회와 경제는 정치적 안정을 바탕으로 하여 새로운 변화와 발달을 이룩하게 되었다. 그 기원은 당 중기까지 거슬러 올라갈 수 있는데, 대개 양세법(兩稅法)과 모병제(募兵制)가 실시된 이후부터 토지사유제(土地私有制)의 발달과 농업생산의 질적․양적 발전이 이루어지기 시작하였다. 이러한 사회와 경제상의 변화는 송대에 들어와 더욱 확대되어 전대(前代)와는 성격을 달리하는 새로운 시대를 출현시켰던 것이다

참고 자료

- 徐蓮達, 吳浩坤, 趙克堯 주편, 중국사연구회 옮김,
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