Introduction to Business 10과부터 17까지 기말고사부분
Hiring, Training, & Evaluating Employees
Creating and Pricing Products
Accounting & Functional Analysis
Expanding the Business
#3 Hawthorne Studies
In the 1920s, Western Electric Plant near Chicago tried to identify how a variety of conditions affected employee levels of production. When the lighting was increased, the production level increased. Yet the production level also increased when the lighting was reduced. These workers were then subjected to various break periods, again, the production level increased for both shorter breaks and longer breaks. One interpretation of these results is that employees become motivated when they feel that they are allowed to participate. Supervisors may be able to motivate workers by giving them more attention and by allowing them to participate.
#4 Maslow’s Theory
Hierarchy of Needs: Needs are ranked in five general categories. Once a given category of needs is achieved people become motivated to reach the next category.
The exhibit on this slide shows the 5 needs (most crucial needs at the bottom):
Physiological Needs: Food, shelter and clothing. Most jobs help to achieve these needs.
Safety Needs: Job security and safe working conditions. Some jobs satisfy these needs.
Social Needs: Social interaction and acceptance by others. This is the need to be part of a group, and some companies attempt to satisfy these needs by grouping workers in teams or by organizing social events after work hours.
Esteem Needs: Respect, prestige, recognition and power. Some workers may achieve these needs by being promoted within their firms or by receiving special recognition for their work.
Self-Actualization: maximization of potential, through fully reaching one’s potential. For example, people may achieve self-actualization by starting and successfully running a specific business that fits their main interests.
Different employees may be at different places on the hierarchy.
Introducing to business