최첨단 교통 시스템인 (ITS) 의 설명과 현재 미국에서 사용되고 있는 사례. 그리고 앞으로 ITS 가 교통흐름에 미칠 영향들을 연구.
1. Abstract 3
2. Background 3
3. Intelligent Transportation system 5
4. Vehicle Detection and Surveillance Technologies 6
4.1 Intrusive Sensors 6
4.1.1 Pneumatic Road Tube 6
4.1.2 Magnetic Sensors 8
4.1.3 Weigh-in-Motion (WIN) 10
4.1.4 Bending plate 12
4.1.5 Piezoelectric 13
4.1.6 Load Cell 15
4.2 Non-Intrusive Technologies 16
4.2.1 Video Image Processor (VIP) 16
4.2.2 Ultrasonic Sensors 18
4.2.3 Mounting of Ultrasonic Range-Measuring Sensors 19
5. Kentucky ITS Program 19
5.1 ADAPTIR (Automated Data Acquisition and Processing of Traffic Information in Real-time) Safety Warning System in Work Zones 20
5.2 Bridge Anti-Icing System 21
5.3 Commercial Vehicle Electronic Screening 21
5.4 Infrared Brake Testing Technology 22
5.5 International Fuel Tax Agreement (IFTA) clearinghouse 22
5.6 International Registration Plan (IRP) Clearinghouse 23
5.7 Northern Kentucky Traffic Management and Traveler Information (ARTIMIS) 24
5.8 Road Weather Information system (RWIS) 28
5.9.1 Surveillance, Monitoring, and Prediction 29
5.9.2 Information Dissemination 32
5.9.3 Traffic Control 34
5.9.4 Response and Treatment 35
6. ITS Prospective For the Future 36
The movement of people, goods, and vehicles on the transportation system is now critically dependent on how effectively that system is operated and managed. While roadway system expansion is necessary in some key locations and corridors to facilitate this movement and in some case economic development, the construction of new lanes will never alleviate the need for effective transportation operations and management of the system on both existing and new segments. Well-planned, cost effective transportation operations and management strategies can improve mobility, safety, and productivity of the system for transportation users in urban and rural areas.
The FHWA (Federal Highway Administration), an agency of the U.S Department of Transportation, has 3600 employees, a field office in every state and an annual budget of more than $21 billion. The FHWA works with the states and with communities across the nation to build and maintain America’s roads and bridges and ensure a strong intermodal transportation system. The agency also develops and helps regulate safety requirements for commercial vehicle operators and through the Federal Lands Highway Program, works to provide access to national forests, national parks, Indian reservations and other public lands.
Lanes for the exclusive use of high-occupancy vehicles, rush-hour use of shoulders, ramp metering, intersection improvements, and other innovative techniques will make ever greater contributions as communities struggle to make efficient use of resources. In the face of growing congestion and a diminishing physical and political ability to add new system capacity, public policy will increasingly focus on improving the efficiency of existing system operations.
1. Hockaday, S., Evaluation of Image Processing Techonology for Applications in Highway Operations Final Report, TR 91-2, Transportation Res. Group, California Polytechnical State University, San Luis Obispo, California, Jun 29, 1991.
2. International Road Dynamics Inc. Traffic Management Products.
3. Intelligent Transportation Systems Business Plan for Kentucky, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Commonwealth of Kentucky
4. Klein, L.A. Traffic Detector Handbook. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC. 2003.
5. Klein, L.A., Sensor Technologies and Data Requirements for ITS, Artech House, Boston, MA, 2001.
6. Kyte. et al. Idaho Storm Warning System Operational Test - Final Report. Prepared for the Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) by the University of Idaho. March 2001