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2.Early Motivation Theories
2-1.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
2-2.Contribution and Criticism
2-3.Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
2-4.Contribution and Criticism
3.Changes in Recent Motivation Theories
3-1.ERG (Existence, Relatedness, Growth) Theory
- Modifying Former Theory, Practical movement
3-2.McClelland’s Theory of Needs - Adding Person Factor
3-3.Expectancy Theory (Process Theory) – Adding Situation Factor
Many managers believe that they can increase productivity by adding automated machines, introducing information systems, or modifying production procedures. However, as Adrian Gozzard (1997), group personnel director for the United Kingdom’s Cadbury Schweppes, pointed out, productivity and the achievement of strategic goals are a matter not of computers and production systems, but of people: He states that, “In the company, you have one resource; it is people and the management of those people. It is motivation that makes the difference between mediocrity and excellence. This is the glue that holds together the objectives and strategies of the organization.” (Adrian Gozzard, 1997)